HIV & Co-infections

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HIV & Co-infections
HIV & Co-infections
Video: HIV & Co-infections
Video: Medical Animation: HIV and AIDS 2023, February

HIV & co-infections

HIV-positive people are more likely to develop hepatitis C, hepatitis B and tuberculosis. Some of those affected already carry these pathogens before they become infected with HIV, while others are due to the progressive HIV-related. Immunodeficiency more prone to these infections. Such severe and protracted comorbidities have an unfavorable effect on the one hand on the course of the HIV infection, on the other hand the HIV infection accelerates the course of co-infections…


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  • ">HIV & Hepatitis B


  • HIV & Hepatitis C
  • HIV & tuberculosis
  • Whom can I ask?
  • How are the costs going to be covered?


HIV & Hepatitis B

The hepatitis B virus is highly infectious. The typical transmission route in adulthood is sexual contact. Even the smallest skin and mucous membrane injuries (blood contact) are sufficient for an infection. Sperm, vaginal secretions, saliva and tears from people infected with hepatitis B are also infectious. People with HIV should get the hepatitis B vaccine. Statistically, they are more likely to be infected with hepatitis B and a chronic course of hepatitis B occurs more often.

For detailed information, see Hepatitis B.

HIV & Hepatitis C

Due to the similar ways in which the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the HI virus are transmitted, double HIV / HCV infections are common. HCV is about ten times more infectious than HIV when transmitted by blood (like injecting drugs with previously used needles). That is why drug addicts are particularly affected by double infections. Hepatitis C should be treated as quickly as possible after an appropriate diagnosis, taking into account the individual circumstances of the illness. This is particularly true in the case of simultaneous HIV infection, as HIV worsens the course of hepatitis C and significantly increases the risk of early development of liver cirrhosis.However, if HIV infection is treated with antiretroviral drugs, there is a higher risk of liver cell damage (hepatotoxicity) for people with a simultaneous hepatitis C infection.

For detailed information, see Hepatitis C.

HIV & tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a reportable bacterial infectious disease that is widespread worldwide and a frequent opportunistic infection in the context of acquired immunodeficiency caused by HIV. The risk of the outbreak and the severe course of tuberculosis is significantly higher with an HIV infection. In people infected with HIV, tuberculosis often develops as a reactivation of a pre-existing infection. Patients who have recently immigrated from developing countries are usually affected by an acute infection.

This bacterial infectious disease is mainly transmitted from person to person by droplet infection. Coughing releases the pathogens into the ambient air and can be inhaled by other people.

Course of tuberculosis

The clinical picture of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infection is influenced by the immune status (number of CD4 + helper lymphocytes). In the early stages of HIV infection, the classic course of tuberculosis with fever, weight loss, night sweats, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath and hemoptysis (coughing up blood) can usually be observed. However, the more the immune status is reduced, the more often one sees unusual courses of tuberculosis with symptoms outside the lungs (extrapulmonary).

Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis

Radiological examinations and laboratory tests are required for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is treated with a combination of at least three tuberculostatics. Therapy lasts at least six to nine months.

As part of HIV care, it is also examined whether one suffers from what is known as latent tuberculosis. People with latent (or silent) TBC infection are clinically healthy and the immune system keeps the pathogens in check. However, depending on the immune situation, this infection can reactivate itself and the person affected becomes ill with TB and must be treated with a combination of at least three drugs. However, if treatment is already in the latency stage, a TB drug is sufficient to eliminate the risk of reactivation with all its consequences (illness, side effects of combination therapy, transmission of the infection).

Whom can I ask?

The diagnosis and treatment of co-infections or accompanying illnesses takes place within the framework of HIV care.

How are the costs going to be covered?

All necessary and appropriate therapies are covered by the health insurance carriers. Basically, your doctor or the outpatient clinic will settle accounts directly with your health insurance provider. With certain health insurance providers, however, you may have to pay a deductible (BVAEB, SVS, SVS, BVAEB). However, you can also use a doctor of your choice (ie doctor without a health insurance contract) or a private outpatient clinic. For more information, see Costs and Deductibles.

According to the guidelines for exemption from the prescription fee, patients with certain diseases do not have to pay a prescription fee for the medication required. These include hepatitis, tuberculosis and also HIV / AIDS. As usual, a prescription fee must be paid for prescription drugs for the treatment of other diseases.

For more information on the prescription fee exemption, see The cost coverage of medication.

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