Emergency In Children - First Aid

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Emergency In Children - First Aid
Emergency In Children - First Aid
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Emergency in children

A child emergency is an acute situation that requires rapid action. Emergencies in childhood are not only a burden for parents or relatives, but also represent a challenge in the rescue service. Unfortunately, studies show that first aid for children is often either not given at all or is given too late. The reason for this is the fear of doing something wrong. The only mistake you can make is NOT TO HELP.

Emergency situations can arise on the one hand from accidents, on the other hand from sudden illness. In both cases, the following applies: Children are not little adults, they need treatments specially tailored to them. Many physiological processes take place differently than in adults, the reserves of the child's body are generally lower than in adulthood.

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  • What are the main causes of child emergencies?
  • What are the special features of child emergencies?
  • What precautionary measures are important?

The prevention of accidents is particularly important in childhood, because many emergencies could be prevented with simple means.

What are the main causes of child emergencies?

The three main causes of child emergencies are:

  • all accidents, e.g. drowning, swallowing objects, traffic accidents, household accidents, burns and scalds etc.,
  • sudden serious illnesses, e.g. allergies, asthma, severe infections, croup, epiglottitis (inflammation of the epiglottis), seizures,
  • Poisoning.

Child emergencies differ according to age group: while birth complications and illnesses in particular lead to emergency situations in newborns and infants, accidents are more likely to occur in small children and school children.

Depending on age, children are divided into the following groups:

  • Newborns: up to four weeks of age
  • Infants: up to one year of age
  • Small children: second and third year of life
  • Child: four to twelve years of age
  • Young people: from the age of 13 to the age of 18

When it comes to accidents in childhood, babies are mainly affected by falls, e.g. from the changing table. Between the seventh month and the fourth year of life, children begin to explore their environment; Swallowing objects or thermal injuries (burns and scalds) are the main causes of accidents. The drowning accident is also a big issue in this age group. From the age of five, sports, recreational injuries and road accidents are the main focus.

With regard to the injury pattern, a distinction can be made: In children under four years of age there are often skull injuries, while in older children there are injuries to the extremities (e.g. arms, legs).

What are the special features of child emergencies?

In order to be well prepared in the event of a child emergency, it is important to take into account a few special features that vary depending on the age of the child.

Special features in babies:

  • Infants and newborns are unable to communicate their pain.
  • A scream can therefore have many causes - from harmless to life-threatening.
  • The head of a newborn or infant is particularly at risk due to the weak neck muscles. In addition, it is quite heavy in relation to the body, which is why the child's head is often affected in accidents (e.g. bruised skull, traumatic brain injury). Even small external influences can tear the small blood vessels in the head. Therefore, shaking an infant or newborn is life-threatening and must be avoided!
  • The head of many newborns and infants is still not very hairy. As a result, children are extremely sensitive to solar radiation and suffer from sunstroke or heat stroke more quickly. Therefore you should always wear a hat!

Special features for toddlers:

  • Children often have an emotional bond with their environment and personalize objects (eg: "The table hurt me"). It is often difficult to describe how an accident happened.
  • Pain cannot be precisely localized, many complaints are reported by children as abdominal pain.
  • Loss of fluids (blood, vomit, liquid stool) leads to a state of shock much faster than in adults.
  • A disruption of the oxygen supply can very quickly lead to a slowing down of the heartbeat with subsequent cardiac arrest.
  • Babies and toddlers have - in relation - a large body surface, the risk of hypothermia is greater than with adults.

What precautionary measures are important?

Many accidents with serious consequences for the child could be prevented with appropriate precautionary measures.

These include:

  • "Child-safe" design of the immediate environment, eg do not leave knives, scissors or lighters lying around.
  • Never leave children unsupervised near water.
  • Do not use any (small) toys that could obstruct the airways. Also, do not leave coins lying open.
  • Never transport children in vehicles without securing them - even over short distances.
  • Always wear a helmet when scooter, bike, roller-skating, skiing or ice skating.
  • Consult a doctor at an early stage in the event of illnesses that go beyond a normal infection.

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