Urinary Tract Infection - Everything On The Topic

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Urinary Tract Infection - Everything On The Topic
Urinary Tract Infection - Everything On The Topic
Video: Urinary Tract Infection - Everything On The Topic
Video: Urinary Tract Infection - Overview (signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, causes and treatment) 2023, February

Cystitis: forms and causative agents

The uncomplicated inflammation of the bladder (acute cystitis), commonly known as urinary tract infection, is an inflammation of the urinary bladder, more precisely of the tissue of the inner wall of the bladder. It is caused by bacteria, which usually rise from the intestinal area via the urethra into the bladder and multiply there. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infectious disease in women. They also get it much more often than men. 50 to 80 percent of women have a urinary tract infection at least once in their life, and it is usually uncomplicated…


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  • What types of urinary tract infections are there?
  • Special form: bacteriuria
  • What are the most common causes of cystitis?

20 to 30 percent of women who have had a urinary tract infection will get one again. Due to the significantly shorter urethra compared to men, bacteria can more easily ascend into the urinary bladder and multiply there.

The situation is different for the male sex in infancy as well as in advanced years as well as in infancy: Changes to the prostate significantly increase the frequency of urinary tract infections in men aged 50 and over and are then almost as frequent as in women. Congenital malformations of the urinary tract are more common in male babies than in girls and are the cause of increased infections.

What types of urinary tract infections are there?

Urinary tract infections are classified according to their location in the urinary tract:

Infections of the lower urinary tract: especially inflammation of the urinary bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) and prostate (prostatitis).

Infections of the upper urinary tract: mainly inflammation of the renal pelvis (pyelonephritis), triggered by bacteria that have ascended into the kidneys via the ureters (ureters).

From a therapeutic point of view, it is also important to divide the expected course of the disease into an uncomplicated or complicated urinary tract infection.

Uncomplicated urinary tract infection: There are no relevant functional or anatomical anomalies in the urinary tract, no relevant renal dysfunction and no relevant pre-existing or concomitant diseases that favor a urinary tract infection or serious complications.

Complicated course: risk groups include people with

  • Disorders of the immune system, e.g. HIV, derailed or poorly controlled diabetes mellitus,
  • Functional restrictions in the urinary tract, such as
  • anatomically or surgically related changes.

In most cases, it is an uncomplicated urinary tract infection, including in particular bladder infection (acute cystitis). The term so-called honeymoon cystitis (honeymoon cystitis), which refers to the increased occurrence of urinary tract infections after frequent sexual intercourse, is also common.

If those affected are afflicted with a urinary tract infection several times a year, ie the acute symptoms occur at least twice every six months or three times a year, one speaks of

recurrent urinary tract infection if there are at least two episodes every six months or three episodes per year.

Special form: bacteriuria

Bacteriuria is when the urine test reveals an increased level of bacteria. In many cases there are no complaints associated with this. This so-called asymptomatic bacteriuria often heals by itself and only needs to be treated in rare cases, e.g.

  • Women in pregnancy,
  • Men before a transurethral prostate resection or other traumatic intervention in the urinary tract.

In another form of bacteriuria, inflammation parameters such as white blood cells are present in the urine, but the patient does not show any typical symptoms, complaints and no pain (sterile leukocyturia).

What are the most common causes of cystitis?

In the case of a urinary tract infection, bacterial pathogens enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation there. In most cases, ascending intestinal germs are the trigger. The most common trigger species in Europe is the intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli for short). Other pathogens are far less common.

The spectrum of the most common pathogens:

  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Klebsiella spp.
  • Proteus spp.
  • Enterococcus spp.
  • Citrobacter spp.

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