High Blood Pressure, Hypertension - Prevention, Avoidance, Prevention

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High Blood Pressure, Hypertension - Prevention, Avoidance, Prevention
High Blood Pressure, Hypertension - Prevention, Avoidance, Prevention
Video: High Blood Pressure, Hypertension - Prevention, Avoidance, Prevention
Video: 8 Reasons for High Blood Pressure | Hypertension Prevention and Control Tips| Swami Mukundananda 2023, February
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High blood pressure: (hypertension) prevention

Elevated blood pressure can have serious health consequences; diseases of the cardiovascular system are particularly feared. A healthy lifestyle is not only the best prevention, but also part of therapy. In the case of slightly increased high blood pressure, a corresponding change in lifestyle is often sufficient to achieve a healthy blood pressure range. In general, a blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg (measurement in the ordination) or below 135 / above 85 mmHg (self-measurement) should be aimed for. For people with risk factors such as chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, after a stroke or with diabetes mellitus, the target value is between 130-139 / 80-85 mmHg.

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  • more on the subject
  • Advice, downloads & tools
  • Healthy diet for high blood pressure
  • Which exercise helps with high blood pressure?
  • Little alcohol & quit smoking
  • avoid stress
  • Aim for normal weight

The most important pillars of a lifestyle change are weight and stress reduction, endurance training, health-promoting diet and reduction or renunciation of luxury foods (alcohol, nicotine).

Healthy diet for high blood pressure

The following measures can make a decisive contribution to blood pressure in the normal range:

  • Salt reduction (NaCl): Salt binds water and is excreted again via the kidneys. An increased salt level leads to an increase in the volume of fluid in the blood and a narrowing of the blood vessels. Both factors cause blood pressure to rise. According to the WHO, no more than five grams of salt should be consumed per day. Cooking well and healthily means seasoning instead of salt. Particular caution is required with the mostly salty finished products. Often, however, it is not the salt content, but the sodium content that is given. To determine the correct salt content, it must be multiplied by 2.5. One gram of sodium is equivalent to 2.5 grams of table salt. Attention: Different amounts of salt are also dissolved in mineral water.
  • Food rich in potassium : Potassium is the antagonist of sodium and promotes elimination via the kidneys. In addition, it expands the vessels. Potassium is particularly found in fruits and vegetables. Good choices are carrots, spinach, broccoli, cabbage sprouts, avocado, legumes, berries, bananas, and stone fruits. However, the high sugar content of bananas and stone fruits should be noted. For more information, see Minerals - Covering Your Daily Needs.
  • Fiber-rich foods: Fiber such as cellulose, lignin and pectin are components of plant foods. They are not broken down by digestive enzymes. As a result, they encourage bowel activity and increase the feeling of satiety. Soluble fiber such as pectin lower the risk of fat metabolism disorders.
  • Low-fat and low-cholesterol food: High- fat food with a high proportion of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids can lead to deposits of fatty substances and calcium salts on the inner walls of the arteries and thus to arteriosclerosis. This reduces the diameter of the vessels and increases blood pressure. Vegetable oils and fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are recommended. These protect the vessel walls. The total fat intake should not exceed 70 to 80 grams per day.

See Nutrition for details.

Which exercise helps with high blood pressure?

Numerous studies have shown that regular exercise lowers blood pressure and prevents hardening of the arteries. However, it should be noted that exertion can increase blood pressure, especially in people with high blood pressure. It is therefore advisable to consult a doctor before starting a fitness program.

  • Regular endurance training: can lower blood pressure by around five to ten mmHg. The medium dose of an antihypertensive drug has roughly the same effect. Endurance training three times a week for about 30 to 45 minutes is best.
  • The maximum exercise blood pressure : As a rule of thumb, the systolic (upper) blood pressure should not rise above 200 mmHg when exercising at 100 watts; in older people over 65 years of age this value can be up to 210 mmHg. If the blood vessels have already been damaged, training should only be started after lowering blood pressure. This will prevent further damage. With increasing improvement in circulatory condition, blood pressure falls, and as a result, a reduction in blood pressure medication is often possible.
  • The right type of sport: Sports that get along evenly without peak loads, such as Nordic walking, hiking, running and cycling, are very suitable. When swimming, the cold stimulus can cause blood pressure to rise. Therefore, cold waters are not recommended. Unsuitable are all sports that suddenly involve great exertion, e.g. strength training, mountain biking, alpine skiing, team sports, tennis and climbing.

You can find detailed information at:

  • Popular sports.
  • This is how movement affects the body
  • Exercise therapy

Little alcohol & quit smoking

There is nothing wrong with a glass of red wine or a cold beer now and then. However, alcohol consumption should be significantly restricted. The cause of the increase in blood pressure from alcohol is not yet fully understood. The sympathetic activity is probably stimulated via the diencephalon. This leads to an increased release of blood pressure-increasing hormones. The daily dose should remain well below 20 g of pure alcohol for men and below 10 g for women.

Examples of the alcohol content of various drinks:

  • Beer: approx. 4.8% by volume (approx. 19 g alcohol per 0.5 liter)
  • Wine and sparkling wine: approx. 11.0% by volume (approx. 17 g alcohol per 0.2 liter)
  • Schnapps: approx. 33% by volume (approx. 5 g alcohol per 0.02 liter)
  • Alcopops: approx. 5% by volume (approx. 11 g alcohol to 0.275 liters)

For more information, see Alcohol: Substance & Effect.

Smoking is one of the most important preventable causes of arteriosclerosis (disease of the arteries). The blood flow is impeded by harmful deposits and narrowing of the blood vessels. This leads to high blood pressure or can cause a heart attack, stroke or peripheral arterial disease (e.g. smoker's leg). People with high blood pressure (but not only these!) Should definitely quit smoking.

See Quit Smoking for details.

avoid stress

There are many types of stress, for example professional, private or emotional stress. All of them release stress hormones, especially cortisol.

This leads to an increase in blood pressure. If stress persists for a long time, the high blood pressure is "fixed" even in relaxation phases. Therefore, timely measures to reduce stress are therapeutically important, such as: enough sleep, exercise, no stimulants such as energy drinks or coffee, planning rest periods during the day, cultivating hobbies and social contacts. In the long term, a healthy life strategy is of great importance.

For more information, see Stress & Recovery.

Aim for normal weight

A healthy diet and more exercise usually lead to automatic weight loss. In some cases, nutritional advice helps. Losing ten pounds of weight can lower blood pressure by up to 20 mmHg.

For detailed information, see Diet for Overweight and Exercise & Body Weight.

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