The Shoulder Anatomy

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The Shoulder Anatomy
The Shoulder Anatomy
Video: The Shoulder Anatomy
Video: Shoulder Anatomy Animated Tutorial 2023, February

The shoulder

Due to its special biomechanics, the shoulder enables a very high range of motion. Although it is the most flexible joint system in the body, it is therefore exposed to a correspondingly high risk of injury…


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  • Components of the shoulder
  • Joints in the shoulder

Three individual joints are responsible for the mechanical functioning of the shoulder, which enable its complex mobility in all levels. In addition, a closely coordinated interplay of different muscles, tendons and ligaments is responsible for the function of the shoulder.

Components of the shoulder

Important components of the shoulder include:

  • Shoulder blade (scapula) with joint socket (glenoid),
  • Shoulder roof (acromion),
  • Collarbone (clavicle),
  • Head of the humerus (caput humeri),
  • Muscle group of the rotator cuff (Musculus supraspinatus, M. infraspinatus, M. subscapularis, M. teres minor),
  • Bursa (bursa subacromialis),
  • various tendons and ligaments, including the long biceps tendon.

Anatomy of the shoulder joint © bilderzwerg

Joints in the shoulder

These joints make up the shoulder joint:

  • Gleno-Humeral Joint: The main joint of the shoulder is located between the head of the humerus and the socket on the shoulder blade.
  • Acromio-clavicular joint: Also known as the ankle joint or AC joint. This secondary joint is located between the roof of the shoulder and the collarbone.
  • Sterno-clavicular joint: This secondary joint is located between the breastbone (sternum) and the collarbone.
  • Scapulo-thoracic joint: between the shoulder blade and the posterior chest wall.

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