MMR Vaccination - Measles-mumps-rubella

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MMR Vaccination - Measles-mumps-rubella
MMR Vaccination - Measles-mumps-rubella

Video: MMR Vaccination - Measles-mumps-rubella

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Video: MMR: Measles, Mumps, Rubella 2023, January
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Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR)

Measles is anything but a harmless childhood disease. They are highly contagious and can have serious consequences for infants, children, adolescents and adults. Mumps is a worldwide viral disease that affects children and adolescents in unvaccinated people. Due to the vaccination situation in Austria, adults are also increasingly affected. When rubella is a viral infectious disease that easily passes as a rule, and is accompanied by a rash, but heavy in pregnancy can cause damage to the unborn child.

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measles

Measles is one of the most contagious viral diseases for humans. The measles virus is transmitted by droplet infection or through direct contact with infectious nasal / throat secretions. The incubation period is usually between eight and ten days (maximum 21 days). Usually the first runny nose, inflammation of the eyes, sore throat and high fever, followed by typical spots of the oral mucus and the appearance of a rash accompanied by an increase in fever. About four days before to four days after the rash appears, which typically starts on the face and behind the ears, the condition is very contagious. Serious complications of a measles infection are otitis media, pneumonia (measles pneumonia), seizures and inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) which can also be fatal.The incidence of measles encephalitis is around one to two per 1,000 reported measles infections, around a quarter of which are fatal and a third of those who survive have permanent, severe sequelae. In addition, as a rare long-term consequence, there is still fatal subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Children who develop measles in the first year of life have the highest risk for this SSPE (risk 1: 600). In children up to the age of 5, the frequency is around 1: 1,700 to 1: 3,300.Children who develop measles in the first year of life have the highest risk for this SSPE (risk 1: 600). In children up to the age of 5, the frequency is around 1: 1,700 to 1: 3,300.Children who develop measles in the first year of life have the highest risk for this SSPE (risk 1: 600). In children up to the age of 5, the frequency is around 1: 1,700 to 1: 3,300.

In addition, by weakening the immune system, measles causes an increased risk of dying from other infectious diseases that lasts for several years. Vaccination, on the other hand, protects the immune system: in industrialized nations with a high measles vaccination rate, it has been shown that measles vaccination in particular could significantly reduce mortality from other infectious diseases.

Note Measles are notifiable in Austria! In the event of a measles outbreak, people who have not been vaccinated or have been vaccinated against measles inadequately can be excluded from visiting public facilities / and community facilities (kindergarten, school, day-care center, workplace, etc.) by the health authority for up to 21 days in the event of contact with measles!

Since humans are the only hosts, measles can be eradicated by a consistently high vaccination rate among the population. The WHO has therefore set itself the goal of eradicating measles. Because of the high contagiousness, a 95 percent vaccination rate of the population with two partial vaccinations is necessary ! Since children cannot be vaccinated before the age of 9 months (vaccination from the age of 6 months is only possible in exceptional cases), they can only be protected by vaccinating older children and non-immune adults.

You can find detailed information about measles on the website of the Federal Ministry for Social Affairs, Health, Care and Consumer Protection and at www.keinemaser.at.

mumps

Mumps is a highly infectious viral disease that is usually transmitted via droplets. The incubation period is approx. 18 days. Complications increase with age. CNS symptoms occur in five to ten percent of infections, 90 percent of which are in the form of meningitis with fever, headache, vomiting and ten percent of inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Up to four percent of patients develop an inflammation of the nerves in the area of ​​the ear (acoustic neuritis), which can lead to deafness as a long-term consequence. Before the introduction of the mumps vaccine, mumps was one of the most common causes of deafness. During and after puberty, ten to 30 percent of male patients develop testicular inflammation, sometimes with permanent infertility.Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) occurs in five percent of cases.

rubella

Rubella is a highly contagious viral infectious disease that is transmitted by droplets. With clinical symptoms, after an incubation period of 14 to 21 days, the characteristic small-spotted rubella rash, lymph node swelling (especially in the neck) and frequent joint problems appear. During pregnancy (up to the 17th week of pregnancy) rubella can lead to severe deformities in the unborn child (deafness, cataracts, heart defects and other organ defects). For this reason, only 13-year-old girls were previously vaccinated against rubella. The rubella vaccination of both sexes as measles, mumps and rubella vaccination is intended to further reduce the circulation of the rubella virus in order to further reduce the risk of malformations even in children of women who are not protected against rubella.

Child vaccination

The triple combination vaccination against burl, mumps and rubella (MMR) is included in the free vaccination program. Two doses of live MMR vaccine are recommended from the age of 9 months (before entering community facilities).

  • In the case of first vaccination in the 1st year of life (from the 9th month of age), the 2nd dose should be administered after three months.
  • In the case of first vaccination after the 1st year of life, the 2nd dose is given as early as possible, with a minimum interval of four weeks.
  • Missing MMR vaccinations can and should be made up at any age.

Note In the case of measles outbreaks, the MMR vaccination is exceptionally possible (deviating from the technical information) from the age of 6 months after contact with measles. If the first vaccination is between six and eight months of age, two further vaccinations against measles, mumps and rubella (2nd vaccination at the age of eleven to 14 months, 3rd vaccination at the age of 15-23 months). For details see vaccination plan Austria, chapter measles, mumps, rubella. When entering community facilities (crèche, kindergarten, school, day-care center, etc.) or at the age of 12, the MMR vaccination status (vaccination pass) should be checked, if necessary the vaccinations should be made up.

Adult vaccination

The MMR vaccination is currently available free of charge in Austria at all public vaccination centers for all age groups. Two doses at least four weeks apart are recommended.

Long-lasting immunity can be assumed after two live vaccinations against measles, mumps and rubella or after a confirmed illness (this can be determined by means of antibody tests in the blood). If there is a lack of immunity against just one component of the vaccine (i.e. measles or mumps or rubella) or if there is no record of vaccinations, the MMR vaccination can be made up at any age. Since it is a live vaccine, it is not possible to “re-vaccinate”: vaccination with existing immunity or after previous vaccinations is not a problem, because in this case the vaccine viruses are prevented from multiplying by the existing immune system.

Adolescents and adults who were vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella only once as children should also receive another MMR vaccination. Individuals vaccinated with an inactivated measles vaccine (measles adsorbed or quintovirelon) should receive two doses of MMR vaccine.

On the occasion of a trip, the MMR status should be checked (vaccinations / immunity available?) And, if necessary, the vaccination should be made up, if a study visit to the USA is usually a compulsory vaccination.

The vaccination is also particularly important for women of childbearing age - the immune status should be checked before a planned pregnancy, as measles during pregnancy can lead to complications for mother and child and rubella can lead to child malformations during pregnancy ("prepare for pregnancy"!).

Danger! Since it is a live vaccine, vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella is contraindicated during pregnancy.

Note The MMR vaccination is not an obstacle for nursing mothers.

For detailed information on measles, mumps and rubella, see Viral Infectious Diseases.

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