Vegan Diet

Table of contents:

Vegan Diet
Vegan Diet

Video: Vegan Diet

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Vegan Diet or Mediterranean Diet: Which Is Healthier? 2023, January
Anonim

Vegan diet

A vegan diet is an exclusively plant-based diet in which all foods that are of animal origin are avoided. These include meat, fish, eggs, milk, honey and products made from them. Depending on the motivation for a vegan diet (especially ethical, ecological, health and religious reasons), animal products such as leather, wool, fur, down and silk are avoided. Those who live vegan have to put together their diet particularly carefully in order to avoid an undersupply or deficiency in certain risk nutrients. The more one-sided the choice of food, the greater the risk of an undersupply or deficiency of certain nutrients. However, a mixed diet, which basically includes all food groups, must alsobe put together in a diverse and varied way in order to be well supplied with all nutrients.

navigation

  • Continue reading
  • more on the subject
  • Advice, downloads & tools
  • Vegan Diet: What Is It?
  • Which nutrients can be critical in a vegan diet?
  • Is a vegan diet suitable for infants and children or pregnant and breastfeeding women?

Vegan Diet: What Is It?

A vegan diet must be differentiated from vegetarian diets that contain milk and dairy products (lacto) and / or eggs (ovo, ovo-lacto) or fish (pesco). For aspiring vegans in particular, it is advisable to seek advice from a nutritionist who specializes in vegan nutrition, such as dieticians and nutritionists, in order to achieve a needs-based supply of nutrients. A varied and diverse selection of plant-based foods is of particular importance for the needs-based supply of energy and nutrients. A correctly implemented plant-based diet can have positive effects on health. Vegans often have lower cholesterol levels,a lower risk of heart disease, lower blood pressure and a lower risk of high blood pressure, and a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, most vegans have a lower BMI and a lower rate of cancer. This fact is justified by the fact that a purely plant-based diet contains less saturated fats and cholesterol, but a higher proportion of fiber, magnesium, vitamin C, folate and carotenoids. In contrast, vegans have a lower intake of, among other things, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, zinc and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.In addition, most vegans have a lower BMI and a lower rate of cancer. This fact is justified by the fact that a purely plant-based diet contains less saturated fats and cholesterol, but a higher proportion of fiber, magnesium, vitamin C, folate and carotenoids. In contrast, vegans have a lower intake of, among other things, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, zinc and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.In addition, most vegans have a lower BMI and a lower rate of cancer. This fact is justified by the fact that a purely plant-based diet contains less saturated fats and cholesterol, but a higher proportion of fiber, magnesium, vitamin C, folate and carotenoids. In contrast, vegans have a lower intake of, among other things, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, zinc and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.Zinc and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.Zinc and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

Note With good planning, a purely plant-based or plant-based diet can have a positive effect on health. In the case of a vegan diet, a dietary supplement with vitamin B12, sound nutritional knowledge and the appropriate advice from a nutritionist who specializes in vegan nutrition are required.

The German Nutrition Society (DGE) generally recommends vegan nutrition:

  • to have the permanent intake of vitamin B12 as a supplement and the supply of vitamin B12 regularly checked by a doctor,
  • targeted selection of nutrient-dense and fortified foods,
  • Regular medical checks on the supply of nutrients as well
  • if necessary, taking nutrient preparations or changing your diet to remedy an undersupply or deficiency with the help of a qualified nutritionist (e.g. doctor, dietician, nutritionist).

Note As the demand continues to grow, numerous special vegan ready-made and substitute products are available in stores that imitate animal products in taste, appearance and technological properties. These include egg substitutes, plant drinks, meat and cheese imitations (= cheese analogs). It is advisable to take a look at the list of ingredients for such products, as they often contain high levels of sugar, table salt or fat and some of them contain many additives.

It is advisable to include as many unprocessed, natural foods as possible in the menu.

Which nutrients can be critical in a vegan diet?

The intake of some nutrients is particularly critical in a vegan diet and may not cover the needs. Since it can lead to serious deficiency symptoms (e.g. increased susceptibility to infections, growth retardation in children, visual disturbances, osteoporosis, anemia, enlargement of the thyroid gland, hair loss, etc.), it is very important that vegans pay particular attention to the intake of certain nutrients Incorporate food specifically into your menu. Which includes:

protein

Vegetable proteins (especially from foods that are as unprocessed as possible) provide many important nutrients (e.g. fiber, secondary plant substances, no or less cholesterol and less saturated fats). However, the protein quality from plant sources is poorer than that from animal sources. The targeted combination and diverse selection of vegetable proteins from cereals, legumes and potatoes can improve the protein quality and biological value and meet the protein requirement. See protein for more information.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: legumes, nuts, (whole grain) cereals, oil seeds and potatoes. These foods should be distributed throughout the day and combined with one another in a targeted manner (with, for example, cereals and pulses, soy products, seitan, quinoa, amaranth and / or oil seeds).

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA)

Vegans can absorb the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA) through high-quality vegetable oils (e.g. rapeseed, walnut and linseed oil). The other omega-3 fatty acids, namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), occur exclusively in high-fat sea fish (e.g. herring, mackerel, salmon) and can also be formed to a small extent from ALA. Nevertheless, it is important for vegans to get these two fatty acids from alternative sources or preparations. See fats for more information.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: Food enriched with microalgae oils.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is the most critical nutrient for vegans. It occurs almost exclusively in animal sources. In addition, a vitamin B12 deficiency can have serious health consequences. A long-lasting diet low in vitamin B12 can lead to megaloblastic anemia, permanent damage to the nervous system, disorders of cell function, hallucinations and memory disorders. A vitamin B12 deficiency can also increase the homocysteine ​​level in the serum, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. According to the German Nutrition Society, the supply of vitamin B12 cannot be ensured through fermented products (e.g. sauerkraut), shiitake mushrooms or algae such as nori or spirulina and other products with cyanobacteria.For more information, see Vitamin B12.

Note The Austrian and German Nutrition Society (ÖGE and DGE) recommend taking a vitamin B12 preparation permanently and under regular medical control and using products enriched with vitamin B12 for a vegan diet to ensure an adequate supply of vitamin B12.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is also insufficiently absorbed in the general population. However, vegans take in the smallest amount. Foods that contain significant amounts of vitamin D include fatty sea fish (e.g. salmon, herring, mackerel). A doctor should discuss whether it is necessary to take vitamin D supplements. It is also important to be outdoors as well, as the body can produce vitamin D itself with the help of the sun. For more information, see Vitamin D.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: Some edible mushrooms (e.g. porcini mushrooms, chanterelles, mushrooms) and foods fortified with vitamin D (e.g. margarine) as well as being outdoors.

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Vitamin B2 is found in numerous plant and animal foods. The most important vitamin B2 suppliers in terms of quantity are milk and dairy products. Since riboflavin, like other vitamins, occurs primarily in the outer layers and in the germ of the grain, it is particularly important to use products made from whole grains in a vegan diet. For more information, see Vitamin B2.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: oil seeds, nuts, legumes, various types of vegetables (e.g. broccoli, kale) and whole grains.

calcium

Calcium is less available from plant sources than from animal sources. However, some plant-based foods also contain significant amounts of calcium. For more information, see Calcium.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: Some types of vegetables (e.g. broccoli, kale, rocket), nuts (e.g. hazelnuts, Brazil nuts), legumes, meat substitutes made from soy, tofu, mineral water with calcium> 150 mg / l as well as foods fortified with calcium (e.g. soy milk).

iron

Iron is more bioavailable from animal sources than that from plant sources. The main source of iron is meat. The simultaneous consumption of foods rich in vitamin C improves the bioavailability of vegetable iron. Coffee and black tea, on the other hand, should not be drunk directly before, during or after an iron-rich meal. The reason: Some of the ingredients contained in it (e.g. polyphenols) can reduce the absorption of iron. See Iron for more information.

Vegan sources of nutrients are: legumes such as peas, nuts, whole grains and spinach.

iodine

A purely plant-based diet cannot cover the iodine requirement. The supplementary intake of iodine via iodine tablets can be useful for vegans. This should only be done after consulting a doctor. For more information, see iodine.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: iodized and fluorinated table salt as well as foods made from them, sea salt mixed with seaweed with a defined iodine content or the occasional consumption of seaweed with moderate iodine content (e.g. nori or wakame).

zinc

In general, the bioavailability of zinc from animal foods is higher than that from plant foods. The most important source of zinc in a vegan and vegetarian diet is whole grain cereals. For more information, see zinc.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: whole grains, legumes, oil seeds and nuts.

selenium

The content in plant foods varies greatly depending on the growing area, as it depends on the selenium content of the soil. See Selenium for more information.

Vegan nutrient suppliers are: cabbage (e.g. broccoli, white cabbage), onion vegetables (e.g. garlic, onion), mushrooms, asparagus, legumes and Brazil nuts.

Tip Vegans should have their supply status, especially the critical nutrients, regularly checked by a doctor and seek advice from a doctor regarding the intake of nutrient supplements. Nutritional advice from a nutritionist who specializes in vegan nutrition is also recommended (e.g. nutritionist, dietician).

Is a vegan diet suitable for infants and children or pregnant and breastfeeding women?

International professional societies do not agree on whether a vegan diet is suitable for infants, children, pregnant women and breastfeeding women. The DGE stated in a statement that a vegan diet is not suitable for pregnant and breastfeeding women as well as for infants, children and adolescents. Especially in sensitive phases of life such as pregnancy and breastfeeding, the health of the child and mother cannot be ensured through a purely plant-based diet. A vegan diet is also associated with risks in the entire developmental period from infants to (small) children to adolescents, due to growth, among other things. During pregnancy there is a risk of the fetus being undersupplied, which can lead to permanent damage.

A vegan lifestyle during breastfeeding can - depending on the nutrient supply of the mother - lead to a lower content of some nutrients such as vitamin B12 in breast milk. This can have negative effects on the infant and its development. The replacement of breast milk or baby food based on cow's milk with beverages based on plants (almond milk, rice milk, soy milk, etc.) is unsuitable for infants due to the nutritional composition. These are not to be confused with soy-based infant formulas, which are adapted to the needs of the infant. Soy-based baby foods should only be given as a substitute for baby foods based on cow's milk in justified exceptional cases and on medical advice. Infants, children and adolescents with a vegan diet are threatened with a shortage of, among other thingsEnergy, protein, iron, calcium, iodine, zinc, vitamin B2, vitamin B12, vitamin D and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Possible dangers for the children include development and growth retardation and sometimes irreversible neurological disorders.

The American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and the Portuguese National Program for the Promotion of a Healthy Diet take a different view. These professional societies take the position that a well-planned vegan diet that includes nutritional preparations and fortified foods can meet all dietary recommendations. According to AND, a vegan diet is suitable for all age groups, including pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Note The following applies in any case: Anyone who opts for a vegan diet over the long term should seek advice from a nutritionist who specializes in vegan nutrition (dietician or nutritionist) on taking a vitamin B12 preparation Ensure that there is an adequate supply of critical nutrients and, if necessary, use fortified foods and nutrient preparations. In addition, the supply of critical nutrients should be checked regularly by a doctor.

For more information, see

  • Diet in Pregnancy
  • Diet while breastfeeding
  • Infant feeding
  • Child nutrition

Popular by topic