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Wild mushrooms impress with their special aroma and bring the taste of the forest to your plate. But not all specimens are suitable for consumption. Beware of mushroom poisoning! Wild mushrooms can accumulate heavy metals and should therefore not be eaten in large quantities. Mushrooms can definitely be warmed up: To do this, cool mushroom dishes quickly and store them in the refrigerator at 2 to 4 degrees Celsius. When warming up, a minimum temperature of 70 degrees Celsius should be ensured…
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- Use and preparation
Mushrooms are usually counted among the plants or vegetables. However, science is increasingly assuming that they are actually more closely related to animals. In contrast to plants, mushrooms do not contain chlorophyll, which leads to the release of oxygen or energy via photosynthesis. Fungi form a large network of cell threads (hyphae) underground, called mycelium. The fruiting body known to us as a mushroom and partly edible is the thickened part above ground. Of the large number of mushrooms, only a small proportion is edible for humans, the so-called edible mushrooms. Depending on the species, mushrooms are very temperature-resistant and also grow regardless of the season. You don't need light to grow. So the winter mushroom (velvet foot rubble) grows on beech trunks throughout the winter,Willows and elms as well as the winter truffle. Many other mushrooms come to light as early as spring, such as the March snail, also called snow mushroom. It can be harvested as early as March. Mushrooms such as chanterelles and boletus can be picked up into November or the Hercules leg even in December.
Due to the variety of wild and edible mushrooms, they are available all year round - also in Austria. The main harvest is in summer and the beginning of autumn.
Note Fungi multiply via spores that sit in their lamellae or tubes.
Mushrooms are relatively low in calories due to their high water and low fat content. Depending on the type of mushroom, it can range from 11 kcal / 100 grams (oyster mushrooms) to 27 kcal / 100 grams for boletus and truffle. The ingredients also vary. The high fiber content in mushrooms ensures a long satiety. However, the dietary fibers chitin and cellulose are also difficult to digest. The truffle has a particularly high fiber content with 16.5 grams / 100 grams. Mushrooms contain many trace and bulk elements such as potassium, phosphorus, selenium and magnesium. It is worth mentioning their high vitamin D content, which is usually found in small amounts in plant foods.
Wild mushrooms accumulate naturally occurring heavy metals such as cadmium or mercury. They should therefore not be consumed in too large quantities; this does not apply to cultivated mushrooms such as mushrooms. Usual portion sizes are harmless.
When collecting mushrooms, be careful of poisonous mushrooms that are unsuitable for consumption: Severe mushroom poisoning can, for example, lead to serious damage to the liver and kidneys or even be fatal. It is particularly treacherous that in the case of life-threatening poisoning, the symptoms such as burning / scratching in the throat, dizziness, diarrhea or bloating of the stomach do not appear until six to 24 hours after consumption. Lighter poisoning, on the other hand, is more noticeable - vomiting and / or diarrhea usually occurs within three hours of eating.
You can find a list of all those mushrooms that are suitable for human consumption on the website of the Vienna Market Office.
Note If complaints arise after consuming mushrooms, the experts at the Poisoning Information Center (VIZ) will help around the clock on the poisoning emergency number +431 406 43 43.
|per 100 g edible portion, raw||Chanterelle
|per 100 g edible portion, raw|
|Energy (kcal)||15th||Iron (mg)||6.5|
|Fat (g)||0.5||Vitamin A (µg)||217|
|Protein (g)||2.4||Vitamin B1 (mg)||0.02|
|Carbohydrates (g)||0.2||Vitamin B2 (mg)||0.23|
|Dietary fiber (g)||4.7||Niacin (mg)||6.5|
|Potassium (mg)||367||Vitamin B6 (mg)||0.04|
|Calcium (mg)||4th||Vitamin C (mg)||6th|
|Magnesium (mg)||14th||Vitamin E (mg)||0.1|
Use and preparation
Mushrooms are particularly versatile. They can be grilled, stewed, roasted or baked. However, they should not be eaten raw, as many edible mushrooms are poisonous raw. The cultivated mushrooms, which are added to salads, often cut thinly, also contain the poisonous substance agaritin in their raw state, albeit in small quantities.
Note Mushrooms can be warmed up if a few rules are observed: Mushroom dishes should be cooled quickly and stored in the refrigerator at 2 to 4 degrees Celsius. When warming up, make sure that the temperature is at least 70 degrees Celsius.
Mushrooms spoil easily and are not suitable for long storage. They can be kept for a few days in a cool and dry place, preferably without light - provided they are fresh and free of pests. If mushrooms are stored too long or incorrectly, toxins can form due to the breakdown of protein. You can recognize older mushrooms by their dark discoloration, sensitivity to pressure and their slimy appearance.
Preserved, e.g. in cans or in oil, they have a long shelf life and are easy to store. They are also suitable for drying. The best way to do this is to cut the mushrooms into slices about three millimeters thick and place them on a dry cloth. Let dry in a well-ventilated place and turn over and over again. The mushrooms can also be dried in the oven. Let it dry for a few hours at around 70 to 80 degrees Celsius (with the oven door slightly open). Dried mushrooms are best kept in a tight, dry container (e.g. glass).
Note Mushroom powder made from dried mushrooms is suitable as a natural seasoning for risotti, pasta, soups or sauces, for example. A manual coffee grinder, for example, is suitable for grinding.
Further information is available from:
- For the right mushroom picking in autumn time is mushroom season
- Mushroom advice centers in Austria (Austrian Mycological Society)
- Database of mushrooms in Austria with information on e.g. growth location and months (Austrian Mycological Society)
- Food supervision in the magistrates and district authorities
- Poisoning information - emergency call and advice.