First Aid Measures

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First Aid Measures
First Aid Measures

Video: First Aid Measures

Video: First Aid Measures
Video: First Aid Measures | Physical Education| CBSE | Class 9 | Himanshu Sir | Unacademy Live 2023, March

First aid measures

Before starting out as a first aider, try to stay calm and take a deep breath. It is perfectly normal for you to feel excited in this situation. Take it step-by-step and remember your first aid skills. Remember, the only mistake you can make is do nothing.

Here are step-by-step instructions on what to do if the worst comes to the worst. It is based on current international recommendations.


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  • ">First things first: self-protection
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  • "> ">Then: emergency check
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  • Call the emergency
  • If breathing has stopped: begin resuscitation
  • "> ">If you are breathing: Correct positioning
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  • Additional basic measures

First things first: self-protection

In order to be able to help efficiently, all hazards that represent a self-endangerment must be taken into account (e.g. speeding cars, poor visibility through darkness or fog, sources of electricity or fire, unsafe mountain terrain). Self-protection has the highest priority. The best knowledge of first aid is of no use if you are harmed yourself. Therefore, for example, the accident site must first be secured.

If it is necessary and possible: Take the injured person out of the danger zone. Pay attention to your own protection, do not put yourself in danger. If your own risk is too great, call the helpers such as fire brigade, ambulance or police.

Then: emergency check

A simple emergency check must be carried out in every emergency with sick or injured persons. Check your awareness and breathing:

Control consciousness

Talk to the victim out loud. If there is no reaction, gently shake the person affected by the shoulder.

  • If the victim reacts (responds, whines, moves): leave him / her in the position in which you found him / her and call 911. Check the condition regularly until the rescue workers are on site. More on this further down in the text.
  • If he / she still does not respond, shout out loud for help so that someone is aware of the situation and can call 911. If you are alone, you have to take the next step and only then dial the emergency number yourself. More on the topic: Emergency: unconsciousness

Control breathing

Hyperextend the patient's head by placing one hand on their forehead and lifting their chin with the other. Then the following applies: hear, see, feel for a maximum of ten seconds, ie: bend your head over the patient's face and look at his / her chest. Watch for your rib cage rising and falling, hear for breath sounds, and feel for breath against your cheek.

The next steps depend on whether or not you were able to detect (normal) breathing in the sick person:

Unconscious persons with existing breathing must be lying on their side in a stable position. Then dial the emergency number 144 and continue to monitor your breathing (more on this below)

Danger! In the case of a cardiac arrest, so-called gasping breathing can occur (individual, “snapping” breaths with extended pauses in between); this must not be confused with normal breathing! The same procedure applies as in the case of no breathing.

If the person is passed out and is not breathing, or breathing abnormally, call 911 immediately and begin resuscitation

Call the emergency

The emergency call is particularly important in an emergency situation. Describe the situation on the emergency telephone as slowly and with concentration as possible. The following information is particularly important:

  • Where is the emergency location? The more precise the better.
  • What happened Illness, injury.
  • How many people are affected? Number of injuries, for example in a traffic accident
  • Who is calling? Own name with telephone number for callback.

You do not need to remember these questions - they will be actively asked by the employee of a rescue coordination center!

The most important emergency numbers are:

  • Salvation 144
  • Police 133
  • Fire Department 122
  • The European emergency number 112 is valid throughout Europe

More information: The emergency call

If breathing has stopped: begin resuscitation

If the sick person is unconscious and not breathing (normally), resuscitation measures must be started immediately, regardless of the cause.

Is there a defibrillator?

If a defibrillator is available in the immediate vicinity, you should get one as soon as possible. If other people are present, ask them to bring the defibrillator up while you begin the resuscitation.

Automatic defibrillators contain instructions on where to place the contact points on the patient. Then follow the defibrillator's instructions.

Chest compressions

Until the defibrillator is available or if none is available: perform chest compressions.

  • Press 30x with a frequency of 100 to 120x per minute.
  • The pressure point is the middle of the chest.
  • The indentation depth should be at least five centimeters (but not more than six centimeters).
  • Do not lean on the person's chest! The chest must be relieved after each compression.


If you trust yourself to do it: Give the person affected twice.

  • To do this, overextend the head of the person affected, hold their nose and completely enclose their mouth with your lips. Blow in forcefully while watching the person's chest: if he / she lifts himself up while blowing in, ventilation is successful.
  • Wait for the chest to come down (exhale) and repeat the process again.
  • Important: If ventilation is not working (the chest does not rise or fall while you are ventilating), it is possible that a foreign object is obstructing the airway. If you can see the foreign object, carefully remove it. If you can't see a foreign object but you suspect it, don't use your fingers to search your throat! Any object that may be present can slide even deeper and make the problem worse. Proceed as described; Chest compressions and repeated ventilation can help expel a foreign body that has been inhaled. More on the topic: Emergency: Obstruction of the airway

After ventilation, start again with chest compressions. Continue with this procedure (30x chest compressions, 2x ventilation) until the sick person shows signs of life or the emergency services arrive. If other people are present, take turns every two minutes; a chest compressions is physically very strenuous for the helpers.

Those who shy away from mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should also refrain from doing so. The chest compressions are definitely important!

Danger! Children are excluded, they always have to be ventilated!

More on the topic: 1x1 first aid for children

If you are breathing: Correct positioning

Sick or injured persons with existing breathing must be correctly positioned until the rescue workers arrive.

Storage when unconscious

In general: unconscious people must always be brought into the stable side position. With this position you prevent suffocation, because if you are not conscious there is a risk that the person concerned inhales saliva or blood or the tongue slips into the throat.

This is how the stable side position works:

  • First place the arm at a right angle on the side to which the person concerned is turned.
  • Then pull up the opposite knee and place the wrist of the other arm on it.
  • In the next step, turn the affected person to the bent arm.
  • As a final step, stretch your head over and open your mouth. This allows blood, vomit or mucus to drain away.

Note People who suspect a spinal injury should be moved as little as possible. If you are unconscious, you should also lie on your side in a stable position.

Storage with awareness

In general, care must be taken to position the person affected as he / she wishes - if she / he is able to provide information. Depending on the injury or illness, certain positions are preferable:

  • Raised upper body: for shortness of breath, heart problems, head injuries, heat emergencies.
  • Raised legs: with allergic reaction, bleeding, collapse, burn, hypoglycaemia.
  • Stable side position: if there is a risk of vomiting.
  • Tightened legs: for abdominal injuries, severe abdominal pain.

Additional basic measures

Until the rescue workers arrive, you can also do the following:

  • Heavy bleeding must be stopped quickly. Press on the wound to stop, or at least slow down, blood loss.
  • Make sure the sick person breathes calmly. Open the windows and loosen tight clothing.
  • Injured or sick people can get cold very quickly. Therefore, cover the person affected.
  • Injured or sick people are often very scared. Therefore, stay with the person concerned in order to look after them and calm them down.

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