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Video: Sarcoid

Video: Sarcoid
Video: Understanding Sarcoidosis: A Visual Guide for Students 2023, September


Sarcoid (also: Boeck's disease, Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease) is a systemic disease in which small, nodular new tissue formations (granulomas) occur as a reaction to inflammatory processes. The disease is rare. The exact causes are not yet known. Among other things, genetic backgrounds are assumed and various external factors are discussed.


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  • What are the symptoms?
  • How is the diagnosis made?
  • How is the treatment carried out?
  • Whom can I ask?
  • How are the costs going to be covered?

What are the symptoms?

The disease can manifest itself in various organs in the body. In the organs

  • Lungs and
  • Lymph nodes

Granulomas are present in almost every single case, however the functional impairment of other organs can be in the foreground, in particular:

  • Nervous system
  • eyes
  • skin
  • bone
  • Vessels
  • Heart (less common, but very dangerous).

The course of the disease varies, and in some cases those affected remain completely symptom-free. Sarcoid can be acute or chronic. It is very rare in children. Spontaneous healing occurs relatively often (especially in acute sarcoidosis). The impairments caused by the tissue changes are different.

Depending on the form and severity of the disease, the following can be seen, among other things:

  • Tiredness, fatigue, night sweats, fever, weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes in the lungs,
  • Dry cough, increasing shortness of breath (lung involvement),
  • Skin signs, e.g. erythema nodosum (red-blue skin nodules mostly on the lower legs) in acute form,
  • red, dry, sensitive eyes, poor vision, inflammation,
  • Joint pain, muscle swelling and pain,
  • Cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure (cardiac sarcoid),
  • Headache, nerve paralysis, aseptic meningitis, psychological symptoms (neurosarcoidosis),
  • Kidney disorders, frequent urination, etc.

An acute sarcoid with erythema nodosum, typical enlargement of the lymph nodes in the x-ray of the lungs and a high fever is also referred to as Löfgren's syndrome. The very rare Heerfordt syndrome can also be observed in the acute form. This manifests itself through inflammation of the middle skin of the eye (uveitis), parotid glands, failure of cranial nerves (e.g. the facial nerve) and possibly fever.

How is the diagnosis made?

To clarify the suspicion of sarcoid, medical history and symptoms are recorded and various examinations are carried out, including:

  • physical examination,
  • imaging tests such as a chest x-ray,
  • CT, PET, ultrasound of the upper abdomen,
  • Pulmonary function examination,
  • Laboratory diagnostics,
  • Bronchoscopy with biopsy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).

Depending on the symptoms and findings, it may be necessary to examine various organs, e.g. the heart, liver, eyes and / or skin. Further laboratory tests, long-term ECG, echocardiography, MRI, etc. may be carried out.

How is the treatment carried out?

The therapy aims to avoid damage to the organs and pain. Drug therapy is not always necessary. Depending on the individual characteristics, severity of the disease or symptoms, the following drugs are prescribed, e.g.

  • Corticosteroids (cortisone),
  • Pain relievers (NSAIDs),
  • Immunosuppressants.

A severe course of the disease (rarely) can lead to fibrosis of various organs, but the functional limitations of the lungs are almost always the main focus. Very severe organ disorders may require a transplant (usually a lung transplant). More information about the transplant.

Regular follow-ups may be necessary in the case of sarcoid.

Whom can I ask?

Contact persons are

  • the family doctor
  • as well as - depending on the complaints - various specialists e.g. for lung diseases, various other fields of internal medicine, ophthalmology, etc.
  • Examinations are partly carried out in the hospital, in lung departments or internal departments.

A search for special facilities for rare diseases can be found at Orphanet.

How are the costs going to be covered?

The e-card is your personal key to the benefits of the statutory health insurance. All necessary and appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic measures are taken over by your responsible social insurance agency. A deductible or contribution to costs may apply for certain services. You can obtain detailed information from your social security agency. Further information can also be found at:

  • Right to treatment
  • Visit to the doctor: costs and deductibles
  • What does the hospital stay cost?
  • Prescription fee: This is how drug costs are covered
  • Rehabilitation & cure
  • Medical aids & aids
  • Health Professions AZ

and via the online guide to reimbursement of social insurance costs.