Alcohol And Drugs: Poisoning

Table of contents:

Alcohol And Drugs: Poisoning
Alcohol And Drugs: Poisoning
Video: Alcohol And Drugs: Poisoning
Video: Drugs of Abuse: Ethanol, Methanol & Ethylene Glycol – Toxicology | Lecturio 2023, February
Anonim

Alcohol & Drugs: Poisoning

Drugs are substances that are misused to achieve psychological effects. The combination of different drugs as well as the mixture with alcohol or medication is particularly dangerous. In addition, the ingredients of drugs are often unknown and contaminated or "stretched" by various means, which makes them even more dangerous.

Depending on the active ingredient group and the person affected (body weight, gender), different symptoms of intoxication occur in the event of an overdose. Some of these can be life-threatening. Rapid first aid is important.

navigation

  • Continue reading
  • more on the subject
  • Advice, downloads & tools
  • Amphetamine poisoning
  • Poisoning with gamma-hydroxy butyric acid
  • Hallucinogen poisoning
  • Cocaine poisoning
  • ">Poisoning with opiates
  • ">
  • Poisoning with ethanol (drinking alcohol)
">

If you suspect that you have taken a large amount of drugs or alcohol, you should always seek medical advice. Contact the

Poison Information Center +43 (0) 1 406 43 43

to assess the risk. If the symptoms are severe, dial 144. Also, if possible, secure the packaging or any remains of the substance you have taken.

Danger! Some drugs are given intravenously, so watch out for syringes lying around and don't touch them.

Amphetamine poisoning

Amphetamines (ecstasy, speed, crystal meth, etc.) are artificially produced substances with a stimulating and euphoric effect. The various substances are also known by the abbreviations MDMA, MDEA, MDA, DOB etc.

Due to their cheap production, amphetamines are used as a party drug, especially among young people. The expected effects include a feeling of increased energy, an increased need to communicate and self-confidence, euphoria and a reduced need for sleep. Slight sensory illusions are also possible (optical and acoustic hallucinations). More on the topic: Ecstasy & Liquid Ecstasy

Symptoms of poisoning:

  • "Horror trips" (strong hallucinations; especially with crystal meth),
  • Restlessness, nervousness,
  • Fear,
  • A headache,
  • wide pupils,
  • High blood pressure,
  • Palpitations,
  • greatly increased respiratory rate,
  • Increase in body temperature.

Under the action of amphetamines, warning signals from the body such as thirst, dizziness, exhaustion etc. are not perceived by those affected themselves. For example, people continue to party and dance despite the increased temperature and sweating.

Can be acutely threatening:

  • extreme fluid loss,
  • Metabolic imbalances,
  • Cramps,
  • Cardiac arrhythmias,
  • Collapse,
  • Coma,
  • acute kidney failure and liver failure.

First aid measures:

  • Bring the person affected into a quiet environment.
  • Open up tight clothing.
  • Give water to drink in sips (only if you are clearly conscious!).
  • Don't leave the person alone, calm down and monitor them.
  • If possible, make sure of any remnants of the preparation you have taken.
  • Contact the Poison Information Center on +43 (0) 1 406 43 43.
  • If unconscious:

    • Dial emergency number 144 !
    • Keep your airway clear. An unconscious person lying on their back is at risk of suffocation. A stable side position can prevent this.
    • If you have stopped breathing, perform a resuscitation immediately.
    • More on the subject: first aid measures

Poisoning with gamma-hydroxy butyric acid

Gamma-hydroxy-butyric acid (GHB) or its chemical precursor is used as an anesthetic in rare cases. In recent years, however, it has been increasingly abused as an intoxicant and in the form of so-called "knockout drops" or liquid ecstasy for criminal activities.

The symptoms that occur after ingestion are dose-dependent and develop very quickly. The full effect is achieved after just 15 to 30 minutes.

In low doses, GHB has a stimulating and disinhibiting effect, similar to alcohol, while in higher doses it is numbing. Even a small overdose can lead to circulatory collapse, unconsciousness and respiratory arrest and become life-threatening. More on the topic: Liquid Ecstasy

Symptoms of poisoning:

  • Dizziness, headache, speech disorders,
  • Nausea, vomiting,
  • Confusion,
  • low blood pressure,
  • Cramps,
  • Clouding of consciousness to unconsciousness,
  • Respiratory paralysis,
  • Cardiac arrhythmias.

First aid measures:

  • If possible, make sure of any remnants of the preparation you have taken.
  • Contact the Poison Information Center on +43 (0) 1 406 43 43.
  • If unconscious:

    • Dial emergency number 144 !
    • Keep your airway clear. An unconscious person lying on their back is at risk of suffocation. A stable side position can prevent this.
    • If you have stopped breathing, perform a resuscitation immediately.

Hallucinogen poisoning

The group of hallucinogens includes substances that cause hallucinations. These include LSD, magic mushrooms, scopolamine and ketamine.

Hallucinogens change perception. The exact effect depends on the drug itself, the dosage and individual factors. After taking LSD, there is, for example, a change in the perception of space and time, hallucinations (objects in the environment seem to flow into one another, to move, etc.), change in body perception or euphoria. The changes in consciousness also lead to incorrect reactions and there is a high risk of accidents.

Symptoms of poisoning:

  • Confusion, disorientation,
  • Fear,
  • Panic attacks,
  • Dizziness,
  • Nausea,
  • Sweating,
  • Blood pressure derailments,
  • Palpitations,
  • Temperature rise,
  • Psychoses (e.g. delusions).

First aid measures:

  • Don't leave the person alone, calm down and monitor them.
  • If possible, make sure of any remnants of the preparation you have taken.
  • Contact the Poison Information Center on +43 (0) 1 406 43 43.
  • If unconscious:

    • Dial emergency number 144 !
    • Keep your airway clear. An unconscious person lying on their back is at risk of suffocation. A stable side position can prevent this.
    • If you have stopped breathing, perform a resuscitation immediately.

Cocaine poisoning

This substance belongs to the group of so-called tropane alkaloids and is isolated from the coca bush. It is used as an intoxicating drug because of its stimulating effects. More on the topic: Cocaine: Effects & Consequences

Note Due to the increased self-confidence up to complete overestimation of oneself, the risk of accidents increases sharply after taking cocaine!

Symptoms of poisoning:

The symptoms can range from mild to life-threatening, depending on the dose and individual factors.

  • Rise in blood pressure,
  • Palpitations to ventricular fibrillation,
  • increased breathing rate,
  • Suppression of thirst and hunger,
  • Temperature increase,
  • dilated pupils,
  • Restlessness, fear, panic attacks,
  • Psychoses,
  • Circulatory disorders in the coronary arteries up to a heart attack,
  • Cerebral haemorrhage, stroke,
  • Circulatory disorders up to respiratory and cardiac arrest,
  • Seizure.

First aid measures:

  • Don't leave the person alone, calm down and monitor them.
  • If possible, make sure of any remnants of the preparation you have taken.
  • Contact the Poison Information Center on +43 (0) 1 406 43 43.
  • If unconscious:

    • Dial emergency number 144 !
    • Keep your airway clear. An unconscious person lying on their back is at risk of suffocation. A stable side position can prevent this.
    • If you have stopped breathing, perform a resuscitation immediately.

Poisoning with opiates

The group of opiates includes substances such as morphine, codeine, heroin, pethidine and methadone. They are used on the one hand in anesthesia and as strong pain medication, on the other hand as a euphoric drug. Heroin triggers a strong feeling of happiness with a subsequent dream-like state, worries and problems appear to have been resolved. The undesirable effects or symptoms of poisoning include nausea and vomiting, a drop in blood pressure and a slowdown in breathing. This can lead to respiratory failure, which makes it particularly dangerous to take. More on the topic: Heroin (opiates): Effects & Consequences

If used improperly, opiates have a very high potential for addiction, so their use is subject to strict rules.

Symptoms of poisoning:

  • narrow pupils ("the size of a pin"),
  • Nausea, vomiting,
  • Slowing of breathing until breathing stops,
  • Cardiac arrhythmia, circulatory failure,
  • Coma.

First aid measures:

  • Don't leave the person alone, calm down and monitor them.
  • If possible, make sure of any remnants of the preparation you have taken.
  • Contact the Poison Information Center on +43 (0) 1 406 43 43.
  • If unconscious:

    • Dial emergency number 144 !
    • Keep your airway clear. An unconscious person lying on their back is at risk of suffocation. A stable side position can prevent this.
    • If you have stopped breathing, perform a resuscitation immediately.

Poisoning with ethanol (drinking alcohol)

The effect alcohol has on the body depends on the amount ingested and on individual factors. In small amounts, it initially has a mood-enhancing, relaxing effect, and fears are reduced. However, as the amount increases, alcohol has an increasingly depressant effect; this is noticeable, among other things, in a longer response time. Speech, balance and coordination disorders occur, and aggressive behavior is also a possible consequence. More information on the topic: Alcohol: substance and effect..

Symptoms of poisoning:

There are different stages in acute alcohol intoxication:

  • Arousal stage,
  • Sleep stage,
  • Loss of consciousness,
  • Apnea.

The symptoms are very different and depend, among other things, on the person's alcohol tolerance. In individual cases, even a few alcohols can be fatal. Children and adolescents in particular are much more sensitive!

First aid measures:

If unconscious:

  • Emergency 144 select
  • Keep your airway clear. An unconscious person lying on their back is at risk of suffocation. A stable side position can prevent this.

If you have stopped breathing, perform a resuscitation immediately

Popular by topic